All months of the Islamic calendar, including the month of Ramadhan and the month of Dhul Hijjah, depend on the sighting of the moon (to determine the beginning of the month).
It is known and there is consensus on the fact that the Hajj rites begin on the 8th of Dhul Hijjah, with the 9th being the important day, since it is the day that one must be in Arafat, and they end on the 10th, which is Eid al-Adha.
Both Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr were established by the Prophet, peace be upon him, when he came to Medina, while Hajj was made obligatory in the ninth year of Hijrah (thus nine years). years after the emigration of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina). There are many Ahadith that confirm this.
For example Ana bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the time before Islam people in Medina used to celebrate two days every year. When the Prophet, peace be upon him, reached Medina he said:
You used to have two days of celebration. Allah has replaced these days with two better days: the day of Fitr and the day of Adha.
Therefore, the day of Eid al-Fitr is not governed by the Hajj rituals, although it may seem that way because it follows the 9th of Dhul Hijjah. Therefore Eid al-Adha does not depend on Hajj, but on when the moon of the month of Dhul Hijjah is sighted.
Something similar happens with the day of Arafah. Arafah Day is Dhul Hijjah 9, and, if it is true that it is the day pilgrims are on the Arafat Plain, for those who do not follow the Saudi moon sighting (and not because its validity is disputed , but because the sighting of Saudi Arabia is not applicable worldwide) this does not mean that it is the day of Arafah in other places (since they may have sighted the moon differently).
Therefore, Arafah’s day is not tied to a place, which might seem like the simplest reasoning, but to a time. This time is set by the lunar sighting, and the lunar sighting is not global.
The day of Arafah is the day on which Allah completed the Deen.
It is recorded in the compilation of al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of ‘Umar bin al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, that a Jew said to him: “O Commander of the believers! There is a verse in your Scripture , that if that day had been revealed to us, we would have taken it as a holy day”. Umar asked, “What verse?” The man said, “Today I have completed your Practice of Worship for you, I have completed My blessing upon you and I have gladly accepted Islam as a Practice of Worship.” (5:3) ‘Umar said, “I know the day and the place that this [verse] was revealed. It was revealed when the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, was standing on Mount Arafat on the Day of Jumu’ah. A similar narration is mentioned by Imam al-Tirmidhi on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas. That version mentions: “It was revealed during the day ‘Id, in Jumu’ah, during the Day of Arafa.”
Arafah day is one of the best days of the year.
Jabir ibn’Abd Allah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “The ten days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah are the best days in the sight of Allah.” A man asked: “Are these days better than the equivalent of days spent fighting for the cause of Allah?” The Prophet replied: “They are better than an equivalent number of days spent fighting for the cause of Allah, except for the one who sets out for it using his wealth and his life and returns without either.” (Bukhari)
It is the day when Allah frees more people from the fire.
“And there is no better day in the eyes of Allah than the Day of ‘Arafah. On this day, Allah, exalted be He, descends to the nearest heaven, and takes pride in his slaves on earth and says to those who are on earth heaven: ‘Look at my servants. They came from far and near, with disheveled hair and dusty faces, to seek My mercy, though they have not seen My punishment. Many more people are delivered from the Fire on the Day of ` Arafah than on any other day.'” (Ibn Hiban)
Allah forgives the faults of all those who are on Arafat’s esplanade on this day.
Ibn Al-Mubarak reported from Sufyan Az-Thawri from Az-Zubayr ibn ‘Ali from Anas ibn Malik that he said: The Prophet spent the day in Arafah until almost sunset. He then said, “O Bilal, ask people to be quiet and listen to me.” Bilal got up and asked the people to be silent and listen to the Prophet. When the people were quiet, the Prophet said: “O people, just now Jibril, peace be upon him, came to me. He gave me greetings from Allah and informed me that Allah has forgiven those who spend the Day in Arafah and those who stop at Al-Mash’ar Al-Haram, and that He has guaranteed their debts”.
At this, ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab stood up and asked: “O Messenger of Allah, is this only for us?” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “This is for you and all who will come after until the Day of Judgment.” Umar exclaimed: “How abundant and blissful are the bounties of Allah!”
Allah forgives the faults of the past year and the coming year to those who fast in it.
Abu Hafsah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Fasting on the day of ‘Arafah absolves faults for two years: the previous year and the following year, and fasting on’ Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram) atones for the faults of the past year”.
This is so except for those who are on the Plain of Arafat on this day as part of their Hajj, since it is not permissible for them to fast on this day.